Regular Extremism

You are here for a collection of 10 advanced features of regular expressions in Ruby!

Regex Conditionals

Regular expressions can have embedded conditionals (if-then-else) with (?ref)then|else. "ref" stands for a group reference (number or name of a capture group):

# will match everything if string contains "ä", or only match first two chars
regex = /(?=(.*ä))?(?(1).*|..)/

"Ruby"[regex] #=> "Ru"
"Idiosyncrätic"[regex] #=> "Idiosyncrätic"

Keep Expressions

The possible ways to look around within a regex are:

Syntax Description Example
(?=X) Positive lookahead "Ruby"[/.(?=b)/] #=> "u"
(?!X) Negative lookahead "Ruby"[/.(?!u)/] #=> "u"
(?<=X) Positive lookbehind "Ruby"[/(?<=u)./] #=> "b"
(?<!X) Negative lookbehind "Ruby"[/(?<!R|^)./] #=> "b"

But Ruby also has "Keep Expressions", an additional shortcut syntax to do positive lookbehinds using \K:

"Ruby"[/Ru\Kby/] #=> "by"
"Ruby"[/ru\Kby/] #=> nil

Character Class Intersections

You can nest character classes and AND-connect them with &&. Matching all non-vowels here:

"Idiosyncratic".scan /[[a-z]&&[^aeiou]]+/
# => ["d", "syncr", "t", "c"]

Regex Sub-Expressions

You can recursively apply regex groups again with \g<ref>. "ref" stands for a group reference (number or name of a capture group). This is different from back-references (\1 .. \9), which will re-match the already matched string, instead of executing the regex again:

# match any number of sequences of 3 identical chars
regex = /((.)\2{2})\g<1>*/
"aaa"[regex] #=> "aaa"
"abc"[regex] #=> nil
"aaab"[regex] #=> "aaa"
"aaabbb"[regex] #=> "aaabbb"
"aaabbbc"[regex] #=> "aaabbb"
"aaabbbccc"[regex] #=> "aaabbbccc"

Match Characters that Belong Together

\X treats combined characters as a single character. See grapheme clusters for more information.

string = "R\u{030A}uby"
string[/./] #=> "R"
string[/.../] #=> "R̊u"
string[/\X\X/] #=> "R̊u"

Relative Back-References

Back-refs can be relatively referenced from the current position via \k<-n>:

"Ruby by"[/(R)(u)(by) \k<-1>/] #=> "Ruby by"

Deactivate Backtracking

Atomic groups, defined via (?>X), will always try to match the first of all alternatives:

"Rüby"[/R(u*|ü)by/]   #=> "Rüby"
"Rüby"[/R(?>u*|ü)by/] #=> nil

Turn On Unicode-Matching for \w, \d, \s, and \b

"Rüby"[/\w*/] #=> "R"
"Rüby"[/(?u)\w*/] #=> "Rüby"

Continue Matching at Last Match Position

When using a method that matches a regex multiple times against a string (like String#gsub or String#scan), you can reference the position of the last match via \G:

"abc1abc22abc333".scan /\Gabc./ # => ["abc1", "abc2"]

String#split with Capture Groups

The normal way of using String#split is this:

"0-0".split(/-/) #=> ["0", "0"]

But if you want to make your code as hard to read as possible, remember that captured groups will be added to the resulting array:

"0-0".split(/(-)/) #=> ["0", "-", "0"]
"0-0".split(/-(?=(.))/) #=> ["0", "0", "0"]
"0-0".split(/(((-)))/) #=> ["0", "-", "-", "-", "0"]


More Idiosyncratic Ruby